Psychological Changes 1

1st Trimester


Father/ Partner


  • Excitement

  • Apprehension

  • Mood swings

  • Cries easily

  • Difficulty acknowledging pregnancy and baby until proof by US

  • May gain weight and experience nausea “Couvade” syndrome

  • Ambivalence : mixed feelings about pregnancy: happy, proud, scared and nervous at the same time.

  • Concerns about finances

  • Changes in sexual relationship (fear of harming the baby)

Written by Fatma Safi

  • Impact of Birthing Practices on Breastfeeding – by Smith (2010)
  • Pregnancy, Childbirth and the Newborn, by Simkin, Whalley, Keppler, Durham, & Bolding (2010)
  • Maternity & Women’s Health Care, by Lowdermilk, Perry, Cashion, & Alden (2012)
  • Prepared Childbirth the Family Way by Amis and Green (2014)
  • ICEA guide to pregnancy and childbirth (2012)